Thursday, December 31, 2015

Met Publications & Favorite Resources

Silk dress with open sleeves, 1856, from The Met
Silk Dress, 1856, from the Met
For New Years' Eve/the 7th Day of Christmas: free books and articles from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  I regularly link to their on-line collections, which contain a variety of original garments and have a user-friendly search function. They also apparently make their older publications available on-line.

Of particular interest to readers of this blog:
From Queen to Empress: Victorian Dress 1837-1877
The Imperial Style: Fashions of the Hapsburg Era (mostly 18th-19th century)
In Style: Celebrating Fifty Years of the Costume Institute

I have a list of helpful museum databases here, but particularly want to point out Wisconsin Historical Society's large collection of children's clothing, and the IQSC's beautiful quilts.  For adult clothing, The Met has the most searchable database, followed by the UK National Trust Collections (an honorable mention goes to the Victoria & Albert Museum). One fun recent find is the Europeana Fashion Project, which is extensive, though somewhat difficult to search through, as there are no year parameters and the items are labelled in several dozen different languages.

Wednesday, December 30, 2015

Weaving Basics, Part 4: Finishing

Once the weaving's complete, it's time to take the piece off the loom and finish it.

There are two edges to finish when the warp threads are cut--the selvages form neat finishes to the other two sides.  This may be done with a knotted fringe, with special stitching along the end, or with hemming the raw edge to stabilize it (hand or machine).  The stitching is easiest (in my opinion) when done on the loom, but the piece will have to be cut off first for the other two options.

If weaving multiple pieces on the same warp (such as matching placemats or dish towels), some waste weft may be inserted between the pieces, and the weaving continued.  Finishing stitches may be done in place when the individual piece is complete.  Be sure that sufficient warp space is left between pieces for any desired fringe.

I finished this piece using a used a hem stitch with extra weft thread, binding the final weft threads together and to the warp.
Finishing the woven cloth with hem-stitch.

After relaxing the tension slightly, the warp is then cut.  If a fringe is desired, be sure to leave sufficient thread along the cut edge.
Trimming fringe on woven runner.

Once the piece(s) is/are off the loom, the fringe (if desired) can be trimmed to uniform length. Long fringe may also be braided or knotted.  Depending on the fiber and purpose, the piece can also be blocked, fulled, felted, or sheared, as desired.
Woven runner or mat.

Tuesday, December 29, 2015

Weaving Basics, Step 3: Weaving

And now, to actually weave.

The weft (crosswise) thread is loaded onto shuttles for easy movement back and forth.  I like the boat shuttle with its bobbins, but stick shuttles are equally effective.  There are other types as well, ranging from large ski shuttles for bulky yarns and rag strips down to small tapestry bobbins with pointed ends for darning through the warp.
Stick and boat shuttles, extra bobbins for boat shuttle.

The first "shed" (space between the warp threads) is made by raising one or more of the heddles, leaving at least one at its neutral position.  The shuttle passes through this gap, leaving the weft in between.  To maintain neat selvages, the weft should be slightly angled: this way, the weft isn't under extra tension, increasing the draw-in.  The shed is changed, then the reed moved forward to "beat" the new weft thread into position.
Boat shuttle passing through shed made by raising heddles holding half of the warp threads.

Beating the new weft/woof with the reed.

When starting a new weft thread (changing color, or just ran out), a tail of thread is left on the first pass; during the second pass, this tail is tucked into the shed, forming a partial extra row, and leaving a smooth edge with no thread ends.  The same method is used to hide the ends when you're done with the that shuttle; if it will be needed again shortly, the same thread can be used, it'll just "float" along the selvage until it's needed again.
Tucking in the weft ends.

Starting colors/new shuttles at opposite ends keeps the extra threads from distorting one end or the other.

Keep weaving as long as you want the piece to be.  When there's no longer room to beat evenly, the warp can be advanced by loosening the tension on the back warp beam, and then re-tightening it on the front beam (this frees more unwoven warp and wraps the finished cloth out of the way).
Boat shuttle and woven cloth on loom.

Monday, December 28, 2015

Weaving Basics Step 2: Warping the Loom

Now it's time to place the prepared warp threads on the loom.

The "X" of the warp threads is maintained by two lease sticks (each thread passing over one and under the other); this helps keep track of the ends and prevent excessive crossing. Put the lease sticks with this crossed thread over the breast beam (front) of the loom, with the long tail of chained warp out front.

Warp crossed on leash sticks.

Next, sley the reed.  Each cut end of warp is threaded front-to-back through a slit in the reed (which spaces and holds them apart, and allows the weft to be beaten).  Reeds come in different sizes, and ideally you use one of the same "dent" as the project at hand (if you want 10 threads per inch, use a reed with 10 dents per inch).  You can also double up threads if needed.  I only have a 12-dent reed for this loom, but want to weave 20 epi--by threading 2-2-1 I can get 20 threads through 12 slits.  If I was planning on weaving a lot of projects on this scale, I'd get a 20-dent reed.

Sleying the reed.
Actually, the camera flash makes it look like this
12-dent reed needs replacing first.
With two people threading the loom, you can have one sley the reed, immediately handing each end to the other person for threading through heddles.  Alone, I sley it all at once, tying off bundles of 20 threads so that they don't fall out of the reed.

Sleyed reed.

With the reed sleyed, it's now time to thread the heddles.  The heddles raise and lower the warp threads while weaving, so each thread needs to go through its own heddle.  These are divided between four different heddle bars, which can be raised and lowered independently. For the "rose path" pattern I'm using, the four heddle bars are threaded 1-2-3-4-3-2-1-4, repeated.  So, if you want every other thread raised, you lift 1 & 3 and the same time, leaving 2 & 4 down: _ - _ - _ - _.  If you only raise  3 on it's own, the shed will look like _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ _ - _-, etc. Tabby or plain weave an be done on as little as two shafts: 1-2-1-2.  A basic 2,2-twill: 1-2-3-4-1-2-3-4.  Since I'm weaving on a "jack" loom, I speak of raising the heddles from their starting position: other looms will change the shed by lowering a heddle bar, or moving it forward and back (vertical looms).

Warp threaded through heddles.

The warp threads are tied off in bundles again after being put through the heddles.  This is a good time to try raising and lowering the heddles, checking for crossed warp threads, which will catch on each other and produce a confused shed.
Shed formed by raising some heddles.
Clean shed: a good sign.
The warp bundles are tied to the back "warp beam" by loops of thread (they could also be tied directly on, but the bundle method leaves less warp thread as "loom waste").  Once all the threads are put through heddles and tied off, the back beam is rotated to wrap the warp around it.  A piece of paper between each layer of threads helps keep them neat and under even tension.
Warp threads attached to warp beam.

Warp threads wrapped around back warp beam.

When all the excess warp is on the back beam, the front ends can also be tied into bundles and attached to the "cloth beam."  Instead of loops here, I use a long piece of linen thread laced between the bundles and the beam: I find this easier for adjusting tension than using single loops as on the back.
Warp bunches and reed.

Warp bunches laced to front cloth beam.

To spread the warp threads out (note how they bunch slightly moving towards the knots), some waste weft is inserted: this can be a chunky cord or fabric strip run across a few time, or even a piece of wood. The idea is to space the warp threads evenly a provide a smooth start for the actual weaving.
Waste weft stabilizes warp for weaving.

The loom is now fully prepared for weaving.

Sunday, December 27, 2015

Weaving Basics, Step 1: Preparing the Warp

For those interested in fabric production, here's a short overview of horizontal loom weaving. As a sewist, I found it very interesting to learn about where my material(s) come from, and thought others might feel the same way.

There are certainly variations in how each step is done (consider the many different kinds of looms available), but the general process is this: measure out the warp, mount the warp on the loom, weave the fabric,  take the fabric off the loom and finish the fabric.  I'll be using my 4-harness table loom throughout to demonstrate.

The first part of the first step is math.  Without going into too much detail, you need to figure out how many threads are needed in each direction and how long each of these needs to be.  For the best results, one weaves a small sample using the estimated sett or ends per inch (the number of warp threads per inch of woven cloth) and picks per inch (passes of the weft per inch of woven cloth) to see that the desired effect is reached, and to figure out how much extra yardage is needed for draw-in (width reduction under pressure) and loom waste (additional warp length that goes onto the loom but can't be incorporated into the finished product). The sample is also then available to test laundering and finishing methods.

Once the calculations have been made and the yarn/thread has been procured, the warp will need to be measured and cut.

Take the total length needed for a single warp thread (finished length + loom waste + any planned fringe + space between pieces if more than one is being woven) and cut a guide thread equal to this length. Tie it onto the warping board, where it measures out a path equal to the desired warp length.

Guide thread on warping board.

Now, the actual warp threads are run along this path, forward and back, until the right number of ends are reached.  The board keeps the threads from crossing and tangling, as well as ensuring constant length.
Warp measured out on warping board.

The "X" at the start makes it easier to count the number of warp threads measured, as you're dealing with exactly half of them.  When transferring the warp to the loom, this "X" will help keep the threads aligned and not tangled together.  It'll also help keep your threads uncrossed in future steps.

Crossed warp threads.

When the desired number of warp threads are measured, they are tied off at intervals with contrasting string, and the excess is chained together like a massive crochet project (to keep it from knotting up). The free end near the X is cut, so that you have individual warps instead of continuous yardage.

Prepared warp.

Next up: getting this on the loom.

Saturday, December 26, 2015

Holiday Humor

"The Crinoline Christmas Tree" cartoon from Frank Leslie's New York Journal (1857)
From Frank Leslie's New York Journal (1857)
Some Victorian humor for the Second Day of Christmas, which is also St. Stephen's Day and Boxing Day.  So, tip your servants and enjoy the theater.

For my part, in honor of the Twelve Days of Christmas, I shall attempt to post on this blog for twelve consecutive days.

Sunday, December 13, 2015

Cable and Rope Chignons

Two more short variations to mix things up: chignons with ropes and cables instead of three-strand braids.  The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine (1856) recommended this two-plait method for making chignons with cable-plaited hair, and I decided to try it with ropes as well.

1. Part the hair, as usual, dividing the back into two sections.  (See basics post.)

2. Rope or plait each of the back sections. (Rope instructions. Cable plait instructions.)

Back hair twisted into two ropes.
Rope version.
3. Twist the two back ropes/plaits around each other, making one thick rope.

Hair "ropes" wrapped around each other.

Two hair ropes twisted together.

4. Coil the rope at the back of the head, tuck the ends under, and pin.
Rope chignon or coil (bun).

And here's the cable plait version, per the original instructions:

Cable plait chignon or bun.

They's both easy while looking complicated, but I think the uniformity of the roped version is more pleasing.  They also remind me of this 1863 coiffure from Godey's:
1863 "Coiffure for a Young Lady" from Godey's.
"Coiffure for a young lady", back view.
There's a ribbon run around the hair, but the
description only says that it's "tied very low on the neck" 

Saturday, December 12, 2015

Corset Upgrade

After a hard summer of wear, the sateen in my 1850s/60s corset failed--it was, alas, not nearly as sturdy as the sateen used in its predecessor.  So, I re-made it in coutil, and while comfortable, it's also basically armor.
1850s/1860s style coutil corset

Sunday, December 6, 2015

Hair Terms of the 1850s and 1860s

I have focused on terms found in magazine and book descriptions of hairstyles in the 1850s and early/mid 1860s.  Some earlier and later expressions are included, with sources dating from 1830-1881.

A great many borrowings from French are found, and some publications favor either French or English terms; others use both.  Following period conventions, I've italicized words and expressions given in French, but not ones which seem to have passed into English usage.  A few regional dialect or slang expressions related to hair are also included.

This is an on-going project, so inquiries, suggestions, and critiques are welcome; I will continue adding entries, improving citations, etc. as I find more information.

Accroche-coeurs: The French name for a "spit curl". (25)

Aureoule (aureole): A ring of light around the head, used in some ecclesiastical images to denote holiness (a halo); a decoration worn over the head in a similar manner.

Example: "Aureoles of small rosettes made of narrow black ribbon velvet, edged with white, are also much worn with nets made of the same ribbon." (20)

Bandeau(x): French for "headband(s)" or "band(s)." May refer to way of arranging the hair, or an ornament worn on it (a band or fillet).
Velvet bead "bandeau" from Peterson's, 1858
Bandeau of velvet with beads, Peterson's 1858
Double and waved bandeau (hair) in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, January 1853
Double bandeau (R), waved bandeau (L),
from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Jan 1853
Bandeau bouffant: A bandeau made over teased hair for additional volume.
Bandeau Boiffant, The Ladies' Companion, 1856
The Ladies' Companion, 1856
Band: A plain band is a relatively smooth arrangement of the hair along the scalp, or over rats; may also be made using waved hair. See "bandeau". Also, a decoration laid on flat, such a ribbon or piece of lace, or a length of braided hair brought over or across the head (similar to a "coronet").
Ornamental band, worn badly, from "How to Arrange the Hair" (1857)
An ornamental band, worn badly. (19)
Hair in waved bands, from Harper's, 1851
"The hair is arranged in waved bands,
short and puffed." Harper's, 1851
Bandelets: A decoration for the hair, consisting of ribbons, velvet, or gilt bands passed over the head. The ribbons are decorated with beads, or sometimes sequins. (20)
Velvet bead "bandelets", Peterson's, 1865
Velvet and bead "bandelets" with
tafetta ties, from Peterson's, 1865
Bandoline: A "soft" pomade used for styling the hair and keeping it neat.  Described as "gummy" and "liquid", in contrast to harder wax-based products. (23) Apparently going out of fashion in 1856. (13) Two 1854 receipts derive it from quince seeds extracted with rose water, or from gum tragacanth mixed with rosewater.

Barb/barbe: A piece of lace often worn streaming down from a head-dress, cap, or bonnet; a lappet or "pinner" on a head-dress.

Barkit: "Dirt hardened on hair, and hence forming a kind of bark", English provincial term. [I hope this is describing animal hair and not human!] (18)

Basket Plait: A four-strand plait, in which three strands are braided as usual with a fourth going straight through the center; I've found written references to this plait are in the 1850s or 1880s, but not the 1860s. Demonstration here. (5, 24)

Barnet Fair: British rhyming slang expression for "hair". (25)

Braid: See "plait".

Bob: To cut the hair short; an American expression. (4)

Bouquet: A cluster of flowers; may describe flowers worn in the hair. (12)

Bow-catcher ("beau catcher") British slang expression for a "spit curl". (25)

Bow: A style incorporating two side-by-side waterfalls, resembling two loops of a bow (see "waterfall" for illustration). (9)

Broches Frisettes: French, "(little) ringlet pins". See "curling pin."

Cable Twist/Cable Plait: A round plait of three strands; it is made by bringing the left strand around the center strand, then the right strand around the center. Tutorial here.. (5, 24)

Cache-Peignes: French, literally "cover combs". A hair ornament worn over the chignon. Named as an alternative to wreaths for formal hairstyles. (3)
Cache-peigne, Godey's, February 1861
Cache-peigne worn with evening dress
and matching sash.
Godey's, February 1861
Calflick: Hair which lies in a different direction from the rest of the hair; a Cravenshire (English, Northumbrian) provincial usage. (18)

Cat: A frizette worn on the top of the head. (15)

Cataract: A frizette used in a "waterfall" worn at the back of the head. (15)

Caul: The hair-covering back portion of a cap (32); potentially also a decorative crown-like accessory. The term appears in fashion descriptions of caps in the 1840s, and describing a blue velvet head-dress in 1858. (33) Other references are historic or ethnographic.

1846 New Monthly Belle Assemblee Morning and Evening Caps
Caps with "cauls", New Monthly Belle Assemblee (1846)
1840 Ladies' Cabinet of Fashion Evening Headdress
Cap "without a caul" for evening dress,
Ladies' Cabinet of Fashion (1840).

Chain Plait: See basket plait. (5)

Chaplet (less often "Chapelet"):  Also called a "drooping wreath." Recommended for formal headdresses for tall women (in the Fashionable Dancer's Casket, 1856).

Chevelure:  French for "hair".  (30)

Chignon: A general term for hair arranged in a mass at the back of the head; coils, knots, twists, and waterfalls may all be considered chignons. Borrowed from the French, meaning either "the 'back hair' of ladies" (26), or "the nape of the neck; the back part of the hair turned up." (30).

Circassian Braid: A fancy braid that I've found mentioned exactly once, in an 1855 article in Harper's New Monthly Magazine.
Grecian, Circassian braids and basket plait, Harper's, 1855
Grecian braid/plait (top),
basket plait (background),
"Circassian braid" across the back.
Coiffure: A hairstyle (14), especially a fancy or involved one; a headdress (13,14); occasionally used as a verb meaning "to dress one's hair". (3)  From the French term for a head-dress (30).

Coiffure de bal: A hairstyle to wear at a ball.

Coil: Hair twisted and wrapped around itself into a circular shape; a bun (I have not found "bun" used to describe hair in a period source).
Hair in a coil from "Self-Instructor in the Art of Hair Work" by Mark Campbell, 1867,
A coil (9)
Comb: An ornament worn at the back or side of the hair, held in place with 'teeth' (examples here); plain tortoiseshell combs may also be worn to add volume to the hair; also, a tool for untangling the hair, available in fine and coarse varieties. (15)

Couronne: French for crown/crowned; it is mentioned in Arthur's Home Magazine (1856) and appears to be a braid passed over the head as a coronet.

Coronet: A crown, circlet or diadem; a similarly shaped ornament of ribbon, velvet, or even feathers, or a braid of hair worn across the head in a like manner. For the latter, see also "band".  (20)

County Crop/ County Prison Crop: British slang for a short prison haircut, said to resemble an inverted basin. (25)

Cow-lick ("Newgate Knocker" or "Cobbler's Knot"): British slang for a large curl, none too clean, worn by of the ear, associated with tramps, thieves, etc. (25) Also a provincial term from Norfolk and Suffolk describing a twisted area of hair on a calf's forehead. (18)

Croppie: British slang for one who has short "cropped" hair, presumably from a recent stint in prison (see "County Crop"). (25)

Curl: A twist of hair, treated as synonymous with "ringlet". "Curl" is also, apparently, the name of a disease affecting potato plants. (29)
Curls, Graham's Magazine, 1856
Graham's Magazine, 1856 (13)
Curl Clasp: Item sold by Godey's in the 1860s, for curling the air. (16) Described in a January 1859 article, these clasps function like modern curlers: hair is wound around the clasp, which is fastened and left in place for several hours to set the curl.  The clasps may be heated prior to use.

Curl-paper/ curl paper: Pieces of paper wound through and around the hair to produce curls; they must be employed for hours before the curls are desired.  These may be made from newsprint, and in whatever form, are depicted as unlovely. Soft paper or silk are recommended over hard paper. The method to use them is described in Female Beauty.

Curlingirons/ Curling-irons/ Curlingtongs: Hot implements used to curl the hair. Curling irons. (6)

Curling Pin: Illustrated in Godey's in January 1859, these pins help hold curls in place during wear. Possibly also used to form the curl (see "curl clasp"). See here for more information.
Godey's 1859 Curling Pin Picture
Illustration of "Curling Pins" to keep long curls and and puffs net.
Godey's 1859
Curling Fluid: Product with supposedly curls the hair "immediately", without needing to use hot curling-irons or wait for several hours in curl-papers. (1858 advertisement here)

Crimpers: Advertised by Godey's in the 1860s; they come in boxes of 12, in different sizes. (16) These appear to be for waving/crimping the hair (see below), though an 1854 dictionary definition suggests that crimping and curling are the same thing (29); a 1869 description of "boiled" hair, however, uses "crimp" to indicate the waves produced by braiding, which is closer to the modern definition of "crimp", ie, causing the hair to zig-zag. (21)  An article in Godey's (page 167, August 1859) shows how to wind damp hair around a U-shaped crimper so that it will dry overnight to produced waves.  Six crimpers are recommended per side of head, with longer ones used up front (thus, the box of twelve in different sizes).
Godey's 1859 hair crimper
"Hair Crimper--How to Use It"
Godey's, August 1859
Crimping Iron: "An iron for curling hair". (11)

Dander: Dandruff or scurf. An "Americanism". (4)

Demi-toilette (or "half costume" or "undress"): Informal attire or style for wear during the day or at home.  Less lavish that "full dress", often with simpler hair styles, and little or no jewelry.

Demi-wreath: A half-wreath, which only encircles part of the head.

Diadem: A style of crown or circlet, typically of precious material.

Italian micro-mosaic diadem c. 1840, in the Victoria and Albert Museum
Italian Micro-mosaic diadem, c. 1840 (VAM)
Velvet Pearl Diadem DIY from Peterson's Magazine, 1860
Velvet and pearl diadem; instructions in Peterson's, 1860.

Dress:  To style the hair; a description of the formality/occasion of one's clothes and accessories (see "full dress", "undress", etc.).

Elf-locks: "Hair supposed to be entangled by an elf"; Cravenshire (British, Northumbian) provincial term. (18)

Fanny Blair: Rhyming slang for "hair". British. (25)

Féronnière: A band worn across the forehead (see picture). Godey's mentions them being "very fashionable" in 1840, but does not describe them. (15) The term is only used a few times during the 1840s, and I've not found it used in the '50s or '60s.  Possibly named for the ornament appearing in Leonardo Da Vinci's "La Belle Ferroniere" (mis-attributed to Titian in this 1834 article).  The name is apparently derived from a French term for an iron-worker or maker of horse-shoes.  See also "band".
""Head dressed with roses, and a Bird of Paradise.
Gold f
éronnière..." Godey's 1842
La Belle Feronniere by Leonardo DaVinci, c. 1495
"La Belle Féronnière"
Fillet: See "bandelet".

Fix the hair: An expression in New England and Upper Canada meaning "to dress the hair." (4)

Flick-Tooth-Comb: A coarse or wide-tooth comb for untangling the hair, in Somerset (British) dialect. (18)

Folds: An option for arranging front hair in the 1850s. (5)

French Twist: Apparently the same as a modern "French twist"; shows up in this 1855 Harper's coiffure, along with several fancy braids. From the frequency of references, the french twist was fairly ubiquitous for back hair 1854-56 (1); it is "old fashioned" but "again becoming quite popular" in 1865, according to Peterson's (20), returning again in 1872 and 1878. Instructions here.
French twist coiffure from Harper's, 1855
French Twist surmounted by Grecian Plaits;
also contains cable twists, bandeau, and seven-plaits.
Harper's, 1855
Friz/ Frizle/ Frizzle: To curl the hair. (6)

Frizette: A pad of hair (typically brushings, which may be curled) or silk which is placed underneath the hair to add volume and shape.  Also used to form the base for pin-in chignons, waterfalls, etc. See also "rat".

Front/ False Front: An item made by a hair-dresser, presumable an arrangement of false hair worn at the front of the head or above the face. (5, 9)

Frouzy: Describes a person will messy or unkempt hair and clothes, in Norfolk (English) dialect. (18)

Full Dress/ Full Toilet: "Dressed for company." (29) Usage indicates formal wear, particularly for fancy dinners and evening entertainments, including balls. Typically entails more elaborate richly ornamented hairstyles than for day-wear; clothing and jewelry are also fancier.

Gum: A sticky substance, used keep the hair neat, and reportedly going out of fashion in 1856. (13) See also "bandoline".

Grecian: A type of  "waterfall". (2)

Grecian Plait: A popular decorative braid/plait in 1850s and 60s coiffures, where it is often placed prominently across or over the head.  The Grecian plait is very similar to a modern fishtail braid: the hair is divided into two bunches, and a small segment at the outside of one bunch is moved to the inside of the second; this is then repeated on the opposite side.  Pictures of the process are available here. (5, 24)

Greek Head-Dress: See "bandelet".

Hair-pincers: A tool for curling the hair, c. 1840 (See Curlingiron). (15)

Half Peruke: See "peruke".

Harl: Hair or thread, a provincial English term from Northumbria. (18)

Head Dress/Head-dress : A general term for involved hair decorations, such as wreaths, caps, bands, etc; the dressed hair itself: synonymous with some uses of "coiffure". (9)

For example: "A charming coiffure was composed of a wreath of flowers, almost round, and very full, over which was placed a barbe of point lace, the long ends falling over the neck.  The same head-dress may be made of geraniums and black lace, or cornflowers and English lace; also with velvet ribbons instead of the flowers." (3)

Hen-caul: A net or cap used to confine the hair, Northumbrian (English) provincial term. (18)

Huer/Hure: English provincial term for "hair," from Northumbria. (18)

La Chinoise: A braid/torsade (rope) or row of curls worn just above the forehead (20).  See also coronet.
Peterson's May 1865 Hair Style
Peterson's, May 1865; in the October issue, the editor opines that
mixing "both plait and tiny curls...causes a superfluidity of ornament".
Lappets: Streamers of lace or ribbon on a cap or in the hair, typically placed on either side of the head near the ears. Also, a figured cloth with a woven design resembling embroidery (1863).

Lock, Locks: A segment or section of hair, typically referring to hair that is unbraided and flowing, especially hair worn loose at the temple and cheek. (8)  A small piece of hair kept for sentimental reasons, such as in a locket. (11)

Loop: A free hanging section of hair or ribbon, with both ends confined.
Opera Coiffure, Frank Leslie's, 1857
Opera Coiffure: "The front hair is turned back from the
centre of the forehead and forms full bandeaux on each side.
Two rouleaux of hair pass across the upper part of the head
and a plait is disposed in a loop below each ear.
A bouquet of flowers ornaments the back of the head.
Crepe head-dress with loops, 1857, Graham's Illustrated Magazine
Crape headdress with "five loops on the right
side and three over the left" and streamers;
Graham's Illustrated Magazine, 1857 page 474 (13)
Lovelock: An archaic term, see "spit curl". (25)

Kidney: A hairstyle worn by students at Cambridge, British provincial term. (18)

Kiss-Curl: British slang expressions for a "spit curl". (25)

Knot: Popular period term for hair done-up at the back of the head; in some contexts it seems to particularly denote a "bun", either plain or braided. See also "twist".
1841 Victoria Penny, showing the Queen's head with hair in a knot and bandeau or fillet
Victoria Penny: "The queen's head to left,
with a bandeau or fillet bound twice around it;
 the hair gathered up in a knot behind." (31)
Macaroon Tresses: A popular style for little girls in London and Paris in 1856, according to Graham's Magazine. (13) Appears to be a form of plait/braid, worn long.  Possibly related to the obsolete term "macaroon/macaroni" to indicate a fop or dandy, reputed to wear voluminous false hair.
Girl with Macaroon Tresses, Graham's Magazine 1856
Macaroon Tresses with ribbons;
front hair in combs, covered with rosettes.
Mouse: A little frizette, smaller than a "rat". (15)

Mouldy: British street slang for a person with grey or powdered hair. (25)

Net: A covering for the back hair, typically netted in either colored silk (as a decorative article) or in very fine silk or hair in a shade matching the wearer's hair (an invisible net).  The latter can be a utilitarian article meant to keep to confine the hair and maintain a neat appearance; it is also mentioned in Peterson's October 1865 that silk or hair "invisible" nets are in vogue for evening wear, as they don't cover up the hair itself (page 294).  Decorative "nets" of woven ribbon are also possible. Nets may be ornamented with beads, tassels, ribbons, etc.  Anna Worden Bauersmith has a more detail investigation of mid-19th century hair nets here.
Black velvet hair net with tassels, Godey's 1861.
"Black velvet net for the hair, with four heavy gold tassels." Godey's, 1861
1860 Peterson's hair net of beads and human hair.
Net made of hair and beads, Peterson's, 1860.

Negligee: French for "undress, loose or neglient dress". See "demi-toilette".

Papillotes: See curl-paper.

Peruke: A voluminous wig, worn by gentlemen in the 17th and 18th centuries. Most period references are to historic practices, though one names "perukes" among the items made by in-house by hair-dressers. (5) The "half peruke" featured in Harper's in 1867 appears to be a ready-made back half of a coiffure. (17)
Half peruke (wig) from Harper's, 1867
Half peruke. 1867 (17)
Plait: The more common term for a braid, when referring to hair.  The basic version comprises three strands of hair (7), and is executed by moving the right-most strand into the center, then the left strand into the center, and repeating until the desired length is reached. In the mid/late 1850s, there's a fashion for "plaits of five, seven, then, and even more strands, woven more or less openly". (5) "A plait" may also refer to a detached section of hair which has been plaited or braided, and which is pinned on the head as part of the coiffure. (9)

Pomade: A scented oil or grease. See pomatum/bandoline.

Pomatum: A hair-dressing aid comprised of perfumed "lard or suet, or a mixture of wax, spermaceti, and oil". More solid than bandoline. (23)

Point: A method of trimming the hair to taper the ends of curls or to remove split ends; the ends of the hair themselves. (27)

Pow: To cut the hair, in Northumbrian (English) dialect. (18)

Puff: Similar to a band/bandeau, but with the hair wound around multiple separate frizettes/rats/mice to produce a three-dimensional effect.  The hair may be smoothed or waved. Puffs may be made from one's own hair, or from false hair. (9)
Front and back puffs from Mark Campbell's "Self-Instructor in the Art of Hairwork", 1867
Front and back puffs (9)
Rat:frizette, particularly one worn at the sides of the head, though it also seems to be a general term. (15)

Ready: To comb the hair in preparation for dressing it; British provincialism from Northumbria. (18)

Ready-comb: "A wide-tooth comb"; British provincialism from Northumbria. (18)

Roll: Hair which has been smoothed around into a tube-shape, typically used for the side hair.  May also be made a separate piece and pinned in place. (2)
Curls arranged as rolls, Harper's Bazaar,1867
Curls arranged to look like rolls. (14)
Roping: Twisting two strands of hair around each other, in a manner resembling a rope. (1) Tutorial here. See also "torsade".

Rosette: A rose-shaped (round, spiraling out from the center) arrangement or hair, ribbon, etc.
Rosettes worn in hair, 1859, Arthur's Illustrated Home Magazine
Back hair braided into low rosettes, and decorated
with rosettes of quilled ribbon, edged in lace.
Arthur's Illustrated Home Magazine (1859)

Rouleau: A french term for "roller." (29)

Scroll: An arrangement of the back hair, rolled and pinned into a sideways S shape.  Appeared in fashion magazines in 1862-3.
Hair arranged in a scroll, Godey's 1863
"The hair is in a double roll in front,
with a curl falling behind each ear.
The back hair is tightly rolled and
formed into a scroll, and kept in
place by two fancy pins." (14)
Scurf: Scale-y skin flecks which accumulate at the root of the hair and can be removed by brushing or washing; dandruff. (28, 10)

Slick: Sleek, to make the hair sleek by combing it.  English provincial term, the verb form being attributed more specifically to East Sussex. (4, 18)

Spit Curl: A curl of hair on the forehead, "probably...plastered into shape by the saliva". American term (see "bow-catcher" for other synonyms). (4, 25)

Strand: A single hair, in Southern US terminology. (4) Also used to refer to the number of sections in a plait or braid, ie, a 5-strand braid.  (5) In braiding cut hair for jewelry, a strand is a group hairs of a set number, ie "take sixteen strands of about twenty hairs each". (22)

Suit of hair: Mid- or Southern US expression, equivalent to "a head of hair". (4)

Switch: A length of cut hair, stitched or bound together at one end, which may be incorporated into a coiffure. (9)

Tail: An item made by a hair-dresser; presumably false hair worn at the back of the head. (5)

Three Fold Twist: An alternative to three-plait in some styles; research is on-going, but I suspect this is a three-strand version of a "rope". (1870s?)

Three-Plait: A basic three-strand plait or braid. (7)

Toatt: A tuft, whether of hair or of another substance; English provincialism from Lancashire. (18)

Torsade: Appears to have two or more meanings.  One is a length of hair or ribbon which appears to be "roped"; ribbon thus arranged appears on dresses and headdresses (Godey's 1859). There's also an 1866 reference in Godey's which describes a braided waterfall: "Another favorite mode of arranging the hair is a torsade, or species of waterfall, formed of four heavy plaits united and caught up with a fancy comb."
Velvet torsade, Godey's, 1861
"The velvet torsade which crosses the hair
is relieved by lappets of the same..."
Godey's February, 1861 (16)
Coiffure of loops and torsade,  Harper's Bazar, 1867
A coiffure "of five interlaced loops,
and a torsade going around them"
from Harper's Bazaar, 1867.
Braided waterfall, possible torsade, Peterson's 1865
Though not named, this style from Peterson's (1865),
resembles the description of a "torsade"
in Godey's the following year.
Toilette/Toilet: One's appearance; to "make one's toilette" is to clean and dress oneself, including arranging the hair. (24)  From the French "toilette", meaning "a dressing table; the act of dressing". (29)

Tocque: Headdresses that "have lost nothing of their vogue" in 1840, according to Godey's. (15) Apparently a French term for a hat or cap, particularly a style of Breton origin (according to Wikipedia).  There may also be a connection to the Waverley novels of Sir Walter Scott (published between 1814 and 1831) which contain a mention of "vagabonds' tocques and turbands."

Tress/Tresses: Poetic term for a lock/section of hair worn down; in the plural, all of one's hair. Technically, tresses are braided while locks are unbraided sections of hair, but in context, the distinction is not always maintained. (8, 13)  Loose sections of supplemental hair are described as tresses in 1867 (though they are intended to end up braided in with the wearer's own hair). (17)
False tresses, Harper's 1867
False tresses for lengthening the hair;
the crepe portions are braided into the
wearer's hair.  1867. (17)
Twist: Interchangeable with "knot" to describe back hair; seems comparable to the modern "bun".

Undress: See "demi-toilette."

Ringlet: One 1840 source mentions ringlets as "cork-screw shaped" curls and gives advice for using pins to keep them neat.  An 1846 dictionary uses both "ringlet" and "wave" as synonyms for "curl". I've found no 1850s/60s styling references calling for ringlets; instead, "ringlet" seems to be used to describe single curls or locks of hair kept for sentimental reasons, especially in poems. (15)

Rosette: A decoration resembling a rose; often made by gathering ribbon, lace, stripes of fabric, etc. into a round shape.  Used on clothes, shoes, and some hair ornaments. Sometimes used as a separate accessory, which may also be called a cockade or badge.

Waterfall: A style of putting up the back hair, in which smooth hair appears to spill over a form.  It's first mentioned in Godey's in 1863 (14), and becomes ubiquitous around 1865-66, apparently supplanting the twisted or coiled chignon. May be constructed out of one's own hair, or arranged in a separate hair-piece and pinned on. (2, 9) More examples and instructions here.
Waterfal, hair pad, and bow, Mark Campbell's "Self-Instructor in the Art of Hairdressing", 1867
Hair pad or "cataract", waterfall built over the pad, "bow" built over two pads. (9)
Waterfall, Godey's 1863
A waterfall worn (Godey's 1863)
Wreath: A crown-like arrangement of flowers, often recommended as part of a ball coiffure.  It falls out of fashion as hair arrangements grow bigger in mid-1860s (Peterson's 1862).  Wreathes may be worn in the hair, or on hats, bonnets, etc; they may also be to made of feathers or leaves instead of flowers.
A wreath worn in the hair, Godey's, January 1861
A Wreath, Godey's January, 1861 (16)
1. Arthur, T. S. Arthur's Home Magazine. Philadelphia: 1854.

2. Arthur, T. S. Arthur's Home Magazine. Philadelphia: 1865.

3. Arthur, T. S. Lady's Home Magazine. Philadelphia: 1858.

4.Bartlett, John Russell. A Dictionary of Americanisms. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1858.

5. Beeton, Samuel. The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine. London: 1856.

6. Booth, David. An analytical Dictionary of the English Language. London: J. & C. Adlard, 1830

7. Bow Bells. London: John Dicks, 1866.

8. Calmet, Augustin. Dictionary of the Bible

9. Campbell, Mark. Self-Instructor in the Art of Hair Work, Dressing Hair, Making Curls, Switches, Braids, And Hair Jewelry of Every Description. New York: 1867

10. Cutter, Calvin. Anatomy and Physiology: Designed for Academies and Families. Boston: Benjamin B. Mussey & Co, 1847.

11. Dickens, Charles. The Adventures of Oliver Twist. London: Ticknor and Fields, 1866 (1838)

12. Frank Leslie's New Family Magazine. 1857

13. Graham, G.R. Graham's Magazine. Philadelphia: 1856

14. Hale, Sarah Josepha ed. Godey's Lady's Book. Philadephia: 1863.

15. Hale, Sarah Josepha and Louis A. Godey, eds. Godey's Magazine. Philadephia: 1840.

16. Hale, Sarah Josepha and Louis A. Godey, eds. Godey's Magazine. Philadephia: 1861. (Also available at Internet Archives.)

17. Harper's Bazaar. New York: 1867 

18. Holloway, William. A General Dictionary of Provincialisms. London: John Russell Smith, 1840.

19. How to Arrange the Hair. London: Partridge & Co, 1857

20. New Peterson Magazine. Philadephia: 1865.

21. Peterson, C. J. The Peterson Magazine. Philadephia: 1869.

22. Peterson's Magazine. Philadephia: 1850.

23. Piesse, William. The Art of Perfumery and the Methods of Obtaining the Odors of Plants. Philadephia: Lindsey & Blakistone, 1867 (2nd American Edition/3rd London)

24. Sylvia. Sylvia's Book of the Toilet: A Lady's Guide to Dress and Beauty. London: Ward, Lock, and Co, 1881

25. The Slang Dictionary Or The Vulgar Words, Phrases, and "Fast" Expressions of High and Low Society. London: John Camden Hotten, 1864.

26. Vincent, Benjamin. Haydn's Dictionary of Dates. London: Edward Moxon & Co, 1871 (13th ed, 1st ed. 1841).

27.Walker, Mrs. A. Female Beauty, as Preserved and Improved by Regimen, Cleanliness, and Dress. New York: J. & H. G. Langley, 1840

28. Wilson, Sir Erasmus. Healthy Skin: a Popular Treatise on Skin and Hair:Their Preservation. Philadephia: Blanchard & Lea, 1854

29. Worcester, Joseph Emerson, and John Walker. A Universal and Critical Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Jenks, Hickling & Swan, 1854

30. Tarver, John Charles. The Royal Phraseological English-French, French-English Dictionary. London: Dulau & Co, 1858

31. Christmas, Henry. The Copper and Billon Coinage of the British Empire. 1864

32. New Monthly Belle Assemblee. London: 1846

33. Peterson's Magazine. Philadephia: 1858.